Part I. Cinematic discourse Chapter 2. Discourse analysis of film dialogues: Italian comedy between linguistic realism and pragmatic non-realismFabio Rossi Rossi demonstrates how the dubbed audio track featured not just in foreign films, but also in Italian films, compares with spontaneous real-life talk. He finds that film genres display fewer characteristics of spontaneous speech such as redundancy, hesitation, overlap, etc.
However, this aligns with audience expectations; just as camera conventions are not naturalistic, but become expected, the introduction of an ''excess of realism'' would be jarring to the viewer. Chapter 3. He points out that the objection that dialogues in films are different from spontaneous speech is to ignore that substantial proportions of language as it is encountered are not spontaneous.
Chapter 4. Here, Montoro extends the traditional language-based approach of stylistics into a multimodal approach. She combines the analysis of verbal signs as ''mind style indicators'' p. Montoro aims to increase our sensitivity to how qualities of characterisation achieved in the novel ''Enduring Love'' are skilfully realised in the film adaptation of the same name, including through the use of camera angles and gesture. Chapter 5. Pragmatic deviance in realist horror films: A look at films by Argento and FincherRoberta Piazza As is the case with other authors in this volume, Piazza is particularly interested in how unconventional characters are depicted, here, in the genre of ''realist horror'' or ''slashers.
As the book exemplifies as a whole, this chapter endeavours to offer an approach to film studies ''rooted in linguistic stylistics'' p. That is, rather than offer a broad critique of the films, Piazza considers very short sections intensively, examining the pragmatics of language used against all elements of the multimodal realisation. It is shown how in this genre the killers infringe the maxim of relevance, thus presenting themselves to the audience as abnormal.
Chapter 6. The careful analysis of a two minute and 30 second scene includes a multimodal transcript, likely to be helpful as a model to others investigating both linguistic and non-linguistic features of film. They demonstrate how the emotion of fear is realised in the complex interplay of modes.
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Chapter 7. Quantifying the emotional tone of James Bond films: An application of the Dictionary of Affect in LanguageRose Ann Kozinski Kozinski shows how the language of ''official'' James Bond films differs from Austin Powers parodies in the expression of emotionality. She deploys the Dictionary of Affect in Language Whissell to enable quantitative analysis. The parodies adopt a distinctive tone she terms ''pleasant and active'', whereas the Bond films demonstrate greater variety over time. Their tone relates partly to the specific actor and partly according to temporal cycles of variation in plot.
Chapter 8. Structure and function in the generic staging of film trailers: A multimodal analysisCarmen Daniela Maier This chapter demonstrates an approach to the analysis of comedy film trailers through examining their narrative structure. Applying this reveals how all the nine stages of the prototypical comedy film trailer contribute to the purpose of promotion, some implicitly and some explicitly.
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Each stage is also associated with certain kinds of information given and functions. Each specific trailer varies in how many of the stages are used and their precise sequencing, but overall the model appears robust. Part II. Televisual discourse Chapter 9. Toolan makes use of Kozloff's idea of ''linguistic opacity'' as part of the aesthetics of the TV series, demonstrating how a strategy of deliberately inducing comprehension problems in the audience is, at first sight, paradoxically, one of the means through which the audience is engaged.
Toolan ends by examining how dialogues are embedded multimodally and explains how, for many viewers, this work was exceptional in conveying psychological depth and sociological plausibility. Chapter The stability of the televisual character: A corpus stylistic case studyMonika Bednarek Stability of characterisation is usually assumed to be important to TV series, i.
Using a corpus linguistics approach, Bednarek demonstrates how stability of characterisation is achieved, while still permitting the character some room for stylistic differentiation, important for engaging the audience. Central to her investigation of the ''Gilmore Girls'' are analyses of a character's diachronic language variation across seasons and variation according to interlocutor.
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In this case, the character focussed upon makes a journey from cyborg to near-human, linguistically realised through adaptation to politeness norms. Relationship impression formation: How viewers know people on the screen are friendsClaudia Bubel Using conversation analysis, Bubel investigates alignment patterns among four central characters of the TV series Sex and the City. In analysing shifting alignment patterns Bubel considers both the negotiation of intersubjectivity and the display of common cultural attitudes. She also illustrates the ways in which, during conversation the four central characters affiliate with, for example, one other and thus disaffiliate, at least momentarily, with at least one other.
Genre, performance and Sex and the City Brian Paltridge, Angela Thomas and Jianxin Liu Drawing on Butler's notion of performativity, the authors analyse how gendered identities are performed through the genre of casual conversation. A major issue here is multimodality: non-linguistic modes of expression belonging to the character such as dress and gesture are significant, as well as the means by which these are framed.
This chapter links strongly with the last in providing theorised readings of this TV show that, for many, was a significant cultural event. Bumcivilian: Systemic aspects of humorous communication in comediesAlexander Brock Brock explores the creation of humour at various levels of language in terms of linguistic deviance or incongruity by discussing a wide variety of examples.
He shows how incongruity can reside at any level of language, for example, phonological, semantic or in the construction of an alternative reading of the world. Brock demonstrates how incongruities can become predictable, thus endangering the effect of humour. He concludes that the development of a more complex understanding of humour is needed. I can imagine that a number of the chapters will be much cited as they lead to promising directions of further investigation. However, I do own to two questions that keep lingering as I have read and then re-read this book, wondering how best to communicate its qualities to prospective readers.
I want to achieve something more useful in an evaluation than a mere reflection of my own subjective responses to the chapters, grounded in my personal experiences. I find it difficult to move far from my subjective responses with what became my first major question: Is it necessary for the reader to have engaged with the particular film or TV series in question in order to relate to the chapters, and does a depth of engagement i.
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I have to admit that in general, I did often more vividly appreciate the authors' approaches when I was already familiar with the media product. So, for example, my own strong positive responses to ''The Wire'', ''Sex and the City'' and ''Star Trek: Voyager'' assisted my understandings of some of the chapters about TV series.
In particular, Toolan's multifaceted approach to the language of ''The Wire'' seemed extremely informative and original. When I was not familiar with the topic, I sometimes struggled to understand the authors' points. For example, it was completely reasonable of Piazza, Bednarek and Rossi to illustrate their introductory arguments in Chapter 1 through an extract from ''No Country for Old Men,'' a Coen brothers film, as a substantial proportion of likely readers may be assumed to have seen it.
Their great achievement lies in the fact that he treats the scenes not as conventional cityscapes - as perspectives on places full of movement and everyday incident - but rather as the kinds of haunted streets we might encounter in dreams. They are backdrops for pregnant symbols or even, at times, for collections of objects that resemble still lifes. De Chirico's innovative approach to these pictures - an approach rather like that of a theatrical set designer - has encouraged critics to describe them as "dream writings.
Key to de Chirico's work is his love of the classical past. He came to this through his appreciation for German Romanticism , and it was this that revealed to him new ways of looking at the Classics, and ways of treating themes of tragedy, enigma, and melancholy. For de Chirico, the themes and motifs of the Greek and Roman Classics remained valid even in the modern world. However, he recognized that the clash of the past and present produced strange effects - suggesting sorrow, disorientation, nostalgia - and some of the most powerful qualities in his work of the s come from staging this contrast.
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Much of the impact of de Chirico's pictures is derived from the restrained clarity of his style. He achieved this by rejecting the formal innovations of much modern art since Impressionism and by instead opting for a frank, realistic manner that allowed him to depict objects with simplicity. De Chirico always believed that his early academic training was vital in preparing him for his later work, and this conservative attitude set him apart from other modernists - particularly from the Surrealists who did so much to elevate his reputation.
In the s this outlook grew into a renewed belief in the value of craftsmanship and the Old Masters tradition, and it directed a shift in his style towards greater detail, richer color, and more conventionally accurate modeling of forms and volumes, as well as more emphatic references to Renaissance and Baroque art. Influences on Artist Artists, Friends, Movements. Influenced by Artist Artists, Friends, Movements.
Interactive chart with Giorgio De Chirico's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.