In addition, several educational institutions are available for BA holders to get a pedagogical training in issues pertaining to English language and the sphere of teaching Ennaji, In recent times, English language becomes momentous in the Moroccan educational system, and the number of students who opt for English language as a major is increasing rapidly. Even though the stages of the writing process are important, this approach, the product approach, concentrates only on the form. For the sake of promoting fluency in writing, language teachers, in general, should provide their students with a number of written texts.
Based on the given texts by teacher, students are required to realize their merits and rewrite them in their own writing Tribble, In a similar vein, Jordan emphasized on the fact that students need to produce a similar text to the one that was given to them. According to Myles written model texts will aid the students to obtain fluency in writing, or at least will assist them to minimize their errors in writing, by the way of mimicking their structures.
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In the same way, Badger and White mentioned that accomplishing good writing skills depends primarily on imitating the written model texts provided by teachers. This approach gives more attention to the organization of writing, structure, cohesion, grammatical aspects and academic style Jordan, The product approach, according to Myles , strives to make students, or writers, capable of using vocabulary, punctuation, spelling and syntax suitably and effectively. The product-based approach is composed of four stages: familiarized writing, controlled writing, guided writing and free writing.
In the first stage, familiarized writing, students are told to write about contrasting stuff such as the difference between written and spoken language. In the second stage, controlled writing, students are supposed to match or re-order words in a given exercise, of course with being guided by the teacher Hyland, In the fourth stage, free writing, students are allowed to write whatever comes into their heads, without giving much importance to errors in terms of grammar, spelling and punctuation Elbow, It was pointed out by Jordan that the process approach, process-based approach, emerged as a direct response to previous approaches such as the product approach.
To achieve the final written product, the writing process should go through some specific processes planning, drafting, rethinking, revising , which are the focal point of the process approach. Unlike the product approach, which is interested in the form, the process approach is interested also in the meaning and in making students able to learn in their own by the way of revision, drafting, feedback , tasks and so on. According to Tribble , at the very beginning, students are told to work cooperatively and discuss all the issues pertaining to the given topic, which they are required to write about in their essay.
After that, making an outline is the next step. After writing the first draft, all students need to share their drafts with their classmates. The primary objective behind doing so is to check if there are any errors or not. Finally, editing the errors is the last step that should be done by the writers themselves. Hyland argued that the product-based approach and process-based approach are based on content as well as the processes involved in the writing process. However, the genre-based approach, also called the genre approach, is utterly interested in the reader.
The focal concern of this approach is that students need to overtake the phase of writing randomly. That is, without specific purposes.
Instead, students are expected to obtain certain purposes. In other words, writing should have a meaning to convey. To use it properly, students are supposed to be aware of their language. During this process, the primary role of teachers is to let students study complex texts. And, this will lead instantly to evolving their writing skills. Moreover, Badger and White mentioned that this approach consists of three main stages which are as follows:.
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Sundem noted that the writing process is the path being followed to produce a well-organized and comprehensive product. It is worthy note that the writing process is composed of pre-writing, drafting, revising and editing. Zemach and Rumisek stated that the pre-writing process occurs before the writer originates writing. It is concerned with delineating the stuff the writer wants to talk about first, and then the writer should plan it. Throughout planning, the writer should bear in mind three main points: the objective of writing, audience and content structure Harmer, Additionally, prewriting is made up of different activities such as: brainstorming, clustering and strategic questioning Gebhard, 2OO6.
In brainstorming, after collecting enough ideas about the topic, the students should write an introduction about it.
In contrast, Zemach and Rumisek said that in this activity students are required to write down all the ideas come to them, and it is not important whether the ideas are good or not. They portrayed this activity as thousands of drops of rain coming down. Sarasdy, Bencze, Poor and Vadnay stated that teachers should make the topic very clear to students either with a picture or asking them some questions. Then, the students are supposed to think of ideas in regard to the selected topic. After a while, the ideas suggested by the students should be broken down into categories depending on certain ideas.
In clustering or word mapping , the students pick out a central word to their topic. For instance, if the given topic is about school subjects, they might pick out English language, and then they should circle it and write all words around it as shown below Gebhard, 2OO6. And what do you still need to learn? Hatcher and Goddard pointed out that drafting is one of the most significant steps, which students fail to deal with properly. They either undervalue it, or they overvalue it.
It was mentioned by Reents 2OO1 that this phase is characterized by writing a summary in which students retell the most significant events of the article or story they have read, or narrating a personal experience that they experimented in the past. Correspondingly, Gebhard 2OO6 said that during this stage the learners are required to build up a set of suitable sentences which convey their thoughts clearly to the reader. According to Sundem , based on the information taken from their prewrite, students are told to write their draft as well as share its content with classmates.
While students are drafting, the teacher is supposed to provide them with help and guidance if needed. During revision, the third step of the writing process, the students in this stage are required to pore over what they have written on the paper in order to make some changes and correct their mistakes. Moreover, teachers should promote their students to check their writing Harmer, Need help with essay? Follow this link: essaymill. All rights reserved. Custom Writing Essay types A collection of year 6 essay questions Expository essay ideas to write about Prompts for a rhetorical analysis essay Youth crime argument essay questions Grade 10 research project ideas University expository essay questions Asylum seekers: argument essay ideas Neutral expository essay prompts Ideas for an essay: To Kill A Mockingbird Basic hints on choosing essay questions Essay topics on music Prompts for a microeconomics essay The Great Gatsby: extended essay ideas To Kill A Mockingbird: essay questions Easy writing ideas for your essay Questions on a Harper Lee's book High school argument essay topics Self-reflective essays: a quick guide Organ donation persuasive essay writing An essay on jealousy: crafting a title Template literature synthesis essays.
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Thanks a lot. Thank you for your positive feedback. Should pharmaceutical drugs be free? I have never taught in my life, but been an international student, alot of local students wants to learn more on gaining confidence in creating and engaging in a conversation in English, thanks to such good articles i am able to learn also on where to start and how to do it best.
Some airlines and restaurants seem to only hire attractive people. Is this discrimination? Should it be legal? This law allowed the government to closely monitor telephone calls, emails, and other personal data. Would you support such a law in an emergency? What characteristics should a good police officer have?
Short Writing Storms
What characteristics do they often have? Should patents held by pharmaceutical companies be bypassed in order to help those in need e. Your son has just come home from school. He is crying because a bully at school beat him up. What do you tell your son? What regrets do you have? What classifications of students existed in your high school e. Which were you part of?
Should children be prohibited from reading certain books? Has reading made you a better person? What are the pros and cons of letting children play video games? Concerning the production of energy, which is the most important consideration: human value or environmental risk?
Essay Writing Difficulties Encountered by EFL Learners
What household chore do you despise the most? What about paternity leave for fathers? Fasting: Some people go without food for a long time to improve their bodies or minds. Can not eating make your body and mind healthier and stronger? If so, why? Do you think our culture is too dependent on medicine?
ESL Conversation Questions (EFL discussion questions on many topics)
Have you ever had a near-death experience? What would you do if you found an unconscious person lying on the street and there were no telephones nearby? Do you believe sexual preference comes from genetics or the environment?